In France, the architecture is legally defined as “an expression of culture,” which is to say that the logic prevailing in architecture is neither commercial nor industrial, scientific or literary, and especially not financial, but basically cultural.
By extension, the term “architecture” is also used to describe the design of systems organized in complex structures, including software architecture and computer and information networks, these concepts are developed in their respective articles and are not presented here.
We can see in the Ten Books of the architecture by Vitruvius that architecture includes the construction of all kinds of civil and religious buildings, bridges, aqueducts, ports, and cities.
The term architecture (in Latin, architectura), comes from the Greek ??????????de ????? / ? (leader, principle) and ?????? (which means “cover” and gave the French word toicture) architecture is used to designate the original art to cover close places, and an architect is a man, who runs this operation.
Since the sixteenth century, architects specializing in designing building, fortifications, and machines, became known engineers during the war.
In the nineteenth century, some Western architects such as Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, were strongly attached to the constructive aspect. (They focused in particular on metallic frameworks and participate in the development of the Statics).
From the twentieth century in the West, where the object designs and production became overall technical and productive then, it became possible to define architecture as the art of directing the construction, designing structures, giving an appearance with the final materials, “the art of building” in addition to the simple construction of buildings.
In some other parts of the world, we can say that this “art of building” always involves a ritual that has existed in the past in the West, distinguishing architecture of simple construction.
The architecture takes care of buildings, public spaces, cities and villages, landscapes, but also of works of art, ships (naval architecture), or space stations.
Given the scope of its applications, the architecture is closer to arts and crafts activity than to rigorous scientific activity. Architecture is first use of knowledge organized in a set, which is particular to its application to the building such as the composition, geometry, morphology, ornamentation, harmony, together with the surveying , static and classics construction. Architecture first demands the know-hows of various fine arts and various contraction trades. But architecture also uses the resources of various scientific disciplines: geology, strength of materials and different human sciences such as anthropology, sociology, psychology (ergonomics), ecology, and geography. Architecture is also based on history.
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