United States border security is the task on ensuring security of the two land borders: north to Canada (8900 km long, for 1/3 extending along the rivers and lakes) and south to Mexico extending for 3200 km, reaching the height of 1,500 m over rough terrain. The security is within the competence of the Agency for the US Customs and Border Protection, (CBP), which is part of the Department of Homeland Security, (DHS). In 2006, CBP annual budget was $ 7.1 billion US dollars. 1.7 billion of it goes directly to the protection of the borders.
To write a successful border security research paper you must know that the CBP personnel in 2006 were about 42 thousand people (including those employed in the customs and protection of maritime borders), of which about 11.1 thousand paramilitary agents were engaged directly in protection of the land border. In accordance with the tasks and threats, the presence of the personnel on the Mexican border (9.6 thousand agents at the end of 2005, and 11 thousand at the end of 2006) is 20 … 30 times higher than on the Canadian.
Mexican border is divided into nine sectors, which in turn are divided into 76 monitoring stations. The average length of a sector is about 350 km; the shortest sector is about 100 km (San Diego, 10 posts), the longest is 650 km (El Paso, 12 monitoring stations); the area of ?? the post responsibility is on average 40 km. Each sector is relatively independent CBP unit, with its own staff. The presence is different: from 16 agents/km (San Diego) to 5.3 agents/km in Arizona, and minimum 2 agents/km in New Mexico, with the average of 3.5 agents/km.
Despite the fact that in 1996 the Congress urged the government to increase (up to 1,000 people per year), the number of agents on the southern border and bring it up to 16 … 20 thousand people, it was not performed due to budgetary constraints. The Act of Congress in 2004 on the reform of the security and anti-terrorism set the increase of border guard services for 10 thousand employees (i.e., up to 21 thousand people) for five years, but increase in personnel until 2006 while going slowly, with about 200 people per year.
After the tragedy of September 11, 2001, the U.S. border security is and a national priority in recent years and has been closely monitored by the Congress and public. In general, the protection is provided by the U.S. border operational method, where the main “load” is carried by personnel patrolling the border area and performing other operational activity involving individual and collective technical means of signaling and covering-up. Space, aviation, and agent Intelligence is widely used.
The U.S. border patrolling in the normal mode is carried out by 2 agents and is 100% motorized; in the impassable places, small single ATVs and horses are used, with the jeeps as a standard transport. Aviation Intelligence of the border areas is carried out by helicopters and small aircraft equipped with television cameras and infrared (IR) imager.
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