Flooding means a land area that is usually dry, temporarily or permanently, put under water, often as a result of events outside of human control, such as heavy rain.
Those who write research proposal on the topic have to get the idea that it is common for natural disasters to cause flooding. These floods are usually very devastating, and are usually associated with heavy rainfall, snow melt, hurricanes or volcanic eruption at sea. Common to all is that the land does not have time to take the all the water that suddenly comes into it. A well-known flood occurred in the Netherlands in 1953 (North Sea flood of 1953).
Monsoon rains can also cause disastrous flooding in some countries near the equator, such as Bangladesh. Tropical cyclones has several characteristics that together can cause devastating floods and storm surges. They cause the air pressure to drop significantly, so that the sea level rises. It has happened that the sea rose as much as 8 feet in the forefront of hurricanes, when they moved from land to sea. Even in the eye of the storm sea level rise can be a few meters of this cause. Hurricanes can also be associated with heavy precipitation.
In modern society, there are large areas of impervious surfaces, where rainwater and melt water quickly drains away, instead of infiltrating the soil. This makes lakes and streams to quickly receive large amounts of water after a heavy rain, whereupon the risk of abrupt and large floods is increasing rapidly.
Although deforestation can increase the risk of flooding further down in the hydrologic system, then water excess occurs much faster.
The natural flow variations are disturbed when building the dams, ditches, channels and bunding in watercourses. The effect is that the water flows more rapidly down to the sea, while ambient ability to buffer the high flows are destroyed, increasing the risk of flooding further down the system. However, the purpose of such constructions to reduce the risk of flooding at the current location where they are implemented, even such constructions as levees can worsen flooding when natural water flow is obstructed.
Overpopulation is a contributing factor to flooding. Hydrologically unsuitable soils are used as the basis for buildings and crops and the latter inundated with disastrous consequences for the affected people.
Perhaps the main method to prevent flooding is to avoid sensitive land uses in areas that are likely to experience flooding. There are several ways to protect themselves against floods in a specific location. These methods include embankments, drainage and lowering sinking. Here it is important to make an appropriate flow rate design, which will last for many years. Many floodings were aggravated due to a poor flow design, which no longer meets today flooding constructions requirement.
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