Kayaking is a physical sport or recreational activity practiced with kayak propelled by paddle.
Canoeing is practiced in leisure (nautical tourism, Individual or associative practice) or competition in the calm water areas (ponds), whitewater (rivers) and sea (estuaries, sea). Security involves control of the boat, technical and physical training, equipment, prior information of the course conditions (weather, condition of the course), the management… vary depending on the type of practice.
To write a successful research paper on kayaking you have to know that the French term appeared in the middle of the XXth century and meant several sports or leisure activities with not only a kayak, but more generally with any boat propelled by paddles (paddling), such as canoe and dragon boat, the raft or wave-ski. Kayaking is thus distinguished from the Rowing (sport), an activity carried out with boats propelled with oars (rowing).
The integration in the West in XXth century of kayak, canoe, and raft in a global sport discipline and linguistic redefinition of the term, have certainly contributed to the recovery of these ancestral practices from other cultures.
The canoe is native to North America, where Native Americans used it as a boat transport, propulsion and direction being provided by a single paddle. The kayak, which comes from the Inuit (the name given to the most known Eskimo peoples), was particularly used by Aleuts, with a single or double paddle, especially for hunting. The distinction between canoe and kayak therefore is more the type of paddle and seat position as well as the number of occupants: there are canoes and kayaks for 2, 4 or 10 people.
There were other boats using paddle through time, people, regions: pirogues (Africa, Americas), outrigger canoe (Polynesia), Vaka (Cook Islands). The boats are driven by paddle, one of the oldest means of human movement using water ways, long before the wheel on the dirt roads. They are used for various other purposes: transportation, traditional festivals, annexes to larger boats, leisure travel, sport activity, and gliding.
Kayaking has evolved considerably since the end of the XXth century, diversifying especially for leisure and sport, aided by the use of new materials and manufacturing processes in the boats themselves, but also in paddle or safety equipment. Originally bark or stretched over a wooden frame, canoes and kayaks were built in skin stretched on metal frame, slatted wood, metal, and now it is especially plastics and composite materials (fiberglass, carbon, kevlar). Boats took forms and equipment specific to new practices, more demanding (free-style, high river, sea…) or public (open boats, that is to say, the paddler sits on and not in addition, with or without self-draining…). The current form of canoes and kayaks depends more on the practice for which they are intended, and individual preferences, than their origin. It is thus a canoe often easily confused with kayak.
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