NATO Research Paper

North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO, also called the Alliance (from Atlantic alliance) is a politico-military organization that brings together many Western countries with the first obj=ective to ensure their common defense against external threats and maintain stability on the European continent. Its headquarters, initially located in London and then Paris, since 1966 is located in Brussels, and his military command (SHAPE), initially located at Rocquencourt (France) is now in Mons (Belgium).

College student writing their research paper on NATO must know that the Organization was born 4 April 1949 following negotiations launched by the five European countries that signed the Treaty of Brussels (Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) with Canada and the United States and five other European countries invited to participate (Denmark, Italy, Iceland, Norway, and Portugal). Other Western countries joined later, but five European nations (Austria, Finland, Irish, Sweden, and Switzerland) do not belong to NATO because they are militarily neutral. However, their armies corresponds to the standards set by NATO.

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The Alliance was intended initial security of the European continent after the Second World War, preventing potential turmoil of German imperialism and opposing any expansionist attempt by the Soviet Union. Between 1955 and 1991, the designated opponent NATO took the form of the Warsaw Pact, an organization of collective security under Soviet obedience created as a result of military integration of the FRG in the Western bloc and with politically and militarily symmetrical to the Atlantic alliance. According to the ambitions of its general secretary British Hastings Lionel Ismay, NATO’s role during the years of the Cold War was “to keep the Russians out, the Americans in and the Germans under guardianship.”

Since the implosion of the USSR in 1991, the organization has faced new threats, such nationalist claims in the former communist bloc and the rise of international terrorism. Pursuing their vocation stabilization, the Allies established since 1994 a “partnership for peace” with Russia and the countries in its sphere of influence, and Western countries who do not want to be part of the NATO.

In the frame of the Partnership for Peace (PfP): NATO has signed numerous cooperation agreements with most European non-member States and all the countries of the CIS. They are extremely flexible and bilateral agreements: Each State wishing to participate in the partnership decided, in collaboration with Member States, the level of cooperation it wishes to undertake with NATO. The primary objective is to maintain information exchange with the former states of the USSR.

The only European countries that are not part of the PfP, in addition to micro-states (Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican,) are Cyprus, and Malta. Other partnerships are generally more distant: this is the case for example of the Mediterranean Dialogue, which brings together Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Egypt.

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