Physical Geography is a system of natural geographical sciences, which comprehensively examines the geographic shell of the Earth. It includes general physical geography (geography), Landscape, paleogeography and regional physical geography. Physical geography also includes sectoral geographical disciplines that study the individual components of the Earth: geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, oceanography, glaciology, geocriology, geography of soils, botanical geography and zoogeography. The science interacts with the technical, agricultural, medical and others sciences forming applied emerging trends such as reclamation geography, recreational geography, medical geography and so on.
Those writing research paper on the topic must know that as modern science physical geography took shape in the second half of the XIX century. Its main tasks is to identify the functional relationships between the various natural phenomena on the earth’s surface, the study of the human impact on the environment, development through protection and management of natural territorial complexes.
Physical geography studies the landscape as an integrated membrane system and its constituent subsystems – territorial and basin landscape, natural and anthropogenically transformed complexes (geosystems) of various levels from landscape facies to the landscape of the country. Geophysics and geochemistry of landscapes are the fields of physical geography, exploring geochemical and geophysical processes particularly masses and energy exchange, functioning and dynamics of the landscape shell territorial differentiation and its complexes of various levels. Economic value of the problems that are solved by physical geography is in need of knowledge about the laws of formation and development trends of landscape shell and complexes for the organization of production and non-production activity of society, environmental protection, sustainable use of natural resources.
Physical geography is divided into two sub-areas of knowledge:
- Geography, or general physical geography, explores the processes in geographical shell, studying global patterns of global scale. It pays considerable attention to the objects and phenomena on the earth’s surface, reveals the causes and features of the accommodation, relationships and dependencies between different parts.
- Regional physical geography has been researching similar issues, but only on certain separate area of land, the ocean.
Main research areas of physical geography:
- Theoretical, experimental, regional, applied problems of physical geography, geophysics and landscape geochemistry.
- Patterns of structure, material composition, formation, development, operation, dynamics of landscape shell, planetary features and key factors of spatial differentiation.
- Regularities of formation, dynamics, evolution, functioning of local landscape and aquatic systems, their stability, ability to heal itself.
- Patterns and factors of spatial differentiation and integration of landscapes of various ranks, their typology, classification and zoning.
- The role of geophysical landscape, landscape-geochemical processes in the formation, dynamics, evolution, spatial differentiation and integration of landscapes complexes, forming environmental sustainability of various ranks landscapes and natural-technical systems.
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