Alfred Nobel was an eminent person and still his prize is of the most appreciated in the world.
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Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833-1896) was a Swedish engineer, inventor, industrialist, and the founder of the Nobel Prizes.
He was born October 21, 1833 in Stockholm into the family of the underwater mines inventor Emmanuel Nobel.
In 1837, the family moved to St. Petersburg, where his father commissioned by the Russian government established the mechanical plant. Alfred Bernhard was taught by private teachers, knew the physics and chemistry, spoke several languages , was interested in technology, literature, history, and medicine.
In 1849-1851 years, he traveled to America and Europe, after two years he studied chemistry in Paris. Back in Russia in 1853, Alfred worked in the company of his father, then worked with a chemist NN Zinin, who conducted experiments with nitroglycerin.
From 1862 he himself began to experiment with this substance. Leaving in 1863 in Stockholm, Nobel continued research and in 1864 received a patent for the production of detonators and explosive mixture. However, the interaction with nitroglycerin implied often accidents (one of them took life of Alfred’s younger brother), so the Swedish government imposed a ban on its production.
To avoid bankruptcy, Nobel tried to reduce the risk. In 1867 he patented dynamite, and in another 20 years he invented ballistite (smokeless powder). The products of his dynamite factories quickly became popular at the international market and were very profitable.
The great inventor was never married and had no children. But he had a lower. At 43, Alfred Nobel fell in love with 20-year-old Sophie Hess, a saleswoman from flower shop in Vienna (1856-1919), and took with her to Paris, where he then lived. Sophie, proudly calling themselves “Madame Nobel” was beautiful and graceful, but, unfortunately, was unwise, uneducated, and lazy – their connection was short.
Total Nobel owns 350 patents (including patents for water meter, barometer, chiller, gas burner, an improved method for the production of sulfuric acid and more).
The inventor was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Royal Society of London, Paris Society of Civil Engineers, had a lot of awards.
By the end of the life of Nobel engaged in charity. Two years before his death, he bequeathed almost his entire fortune (31 MSEK ) to a fund established specifically to annually award the persons whose activity has brought the greatest benefit to mankind.
Nobel died December 10, 1896 at his villa in San Remo (Italy).
Every year on the anniversary of his death in Stockholm held ceremony of the Nobel Prizes.
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