The “Arab Spring” is a ensemble of popular protests of highly variable magnitude and intensity, which have occurred in many countries of the Arab world since December 2010. The term “Arab Spring” refers to the “Spring of Nations” in 1848, to which it was compared. These national revolutionary movements are also called Arab revolutions, Arab uprisings or even the “Arab Awakening.”
These events began on 17 December 2010 in the town of Sidi Bouzid in Tunis, by a revolution, which made Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali to leave power. In turn, other people resume the slogan “Get out! “(Or “Erhal!” In Arabic), which became the symbol of the revolution. In addition to the departure of dictators and the establishment of a democracy, protesters demanded the appropriation of the the dictator illegal wealth, which would be a basis for better living conditions, jobs, and dignity (“Karama” in Arabic).
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While the Egyptian revolution has caused the departure of Hosni Mubarak and democratic transition, it was not the same in other countries: Libya was torn by a civil war between forces loyal to the Libyan regime of Muammar Gaddafi and insurgents backed by foreign intervention under a UN mandate. In Bahrain, the cons-revolutionary solidarity of Gulf monarchies scotched a mutiny. Yemen Dictator Saleh that repressed a revolt initiated the local opposition and the international support for a peaceful transition and resigned on 27 February. In Syria, the repression by the regime of Bashar al-Assad caused thousands of deaths.
Despite the violent repressions in all countries affected by the large fluctuations, they almost all have failed and disputes continued. All other Arab countries except Qatar have been affected, but the protests have had a more limited scope and consequences. Non-Arab states have also recorded events or carried out preventive actions, including Iran, but the magnitude of these movements was generally lower and the influence of events in the Arab world has not always been clearly established.
The main causes of these movements with a strong social dimension was the lack of individual and public freedoms, kleptocracy, unemployment, poverty, the high cost of living and a need for democracy that is not a simple facade. This revolutionary wave is compared to various historical moments, such as the Spring of Nations in 1848, the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, or the Italian unification.
These revolutions initially use methods of non-violent protest in the manual of Gene Sharp and inspired by those of Gandhi, the revolutionary use of modern communication technologies (various tools of the Internet and mobile phone) intensively, satellite TV playing also an important role in the unfolding events. Dictatorships also shall attempt to counter these media (cut or interference networks, attacks against journalists).
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