Human growth and development occurs mostly from 0 to 18 years of age. It has long been observed that the biological growth and psychological development have an heterochronic, uneven course and can be divided into several stages.
Therefore, the first stage of human growth and development, which can be described as infancy, begins with the birth of a child. At this stage begins the activation of the infant body – blood flow increases, blood is changing some of its physico-chemical and morphological properties. Digestive glands begin to function.
With the first cry of the child, the respiratory system begins to work. The brain under the influence of such changes begins to work more actively than before in the womb.
At the second stage of human growth and development, which occurs during the second year of life, begins active growth of teeth and bones of the child skeleton. Speech begins to develop rapidly and cartilage turns to bone. The brain also continues intensively develop and especially such function as memory. The child begins to understand his individuality and independence from external factors.
With three years of age, in the third stage of human growth and development, having trained well to control the body and learned already enough words to communicate, the child begins to feel the need to talk, play with his peers. As well, he continues to improve his physical abilities, learning to run and jump, he significantly increased psycho-motor reaction. Consciousness begins to adept the concept of personality.
In the fourth stage of development, attributable to the period from 7 to 10 years of life, occurs the replacement of milk teeth with molars. Also during this period, the ossification begins in the main metacarpal and phalangeal epiphysis. Pulse is a little lower and closer to the rhythm characteristic to a healthy adult, though is still a bit of higher (85 – 88 beats per minute).
The brain has already formed to acquire new knowledge. In addition, since the child starts go to school, self-consciousness begins to form a new image of itself. The child’s ego begins the process of its socialization. It begins to compare and understand not only itself, but also other the people around him.
The growth and development of the person in the fifth stage, attributable to the age from eleven to thirteen, is not slowing down, and is even faster in some indicators.
Thus, this period of life is accounted for puberty and the beginning of the secondary sex characteristics active formation. A person tries to adjust its behavior and way of thinking on the adult rate, it has a desire to shape its goals not only for today, but also for next week and month.
A person ceases to plan only for today’s day and starts to think about tomorrow.
From 12 to 18 years of his life, a person comes into the penultimate stage of its biological and physical development.
There is an increase of its independence; secondary sexual characteristics become fully developed. A personality shows a tendency to avoid the influence of adults, on the other hand, it relies more now on the opinion of peers and strangers.
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