Humanism (from it. umanista → umano “human,” compare humanus, “human”) is a school of thought – usually spiritual or cultural – based on a philosophy of life based on the individual’s value and the importance of education.
To write a good free sample research paper on the topic the writer should know that Humanism can also be associated with the academic subjects that are included in the humanities. Like other -isms word has a vague meaning. The word was coined in 1808 by Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer, but occurred in other grammatical forms already during the Roman antiquity. The movement is usually considered to have occurred during the Renaissance. According to Jacob Burckhardt’s classic distinction in Die Culture der Renaissance in Italy (1860) humanism was the scholarly side of the Renaissance. The cultural heritage of the Renaissance led to has since gone under the name.
Traditionally humanism is divided into three periods: the real humanism, new humanism and modern humanism. Another classification method is to distinguish between secular and religious humanism. The secular humanism opposes religious and metaphysical explanations of reality, while the religious differs by acceptance of supernatural phenomena and events in the world picture.
The word “humanism” comes from Latin, Humanitas. An equivalent word was missing in the classical Greek. The first time “Humanitas” is available in the sources by Stoics and the circle around the Roman commander Scipio. Stoics were characterized by their conclusion that people are naturally equal, and they proclaimed a universal human value. The conclusion was based on the idea that there is a moral objective world order that is related to the human conscience; these thoughts, however, were already in the oldest literature.
With a historical approach humanism has a significant source in De Civitate Dei by Augustine (354-430), and as a result human dignity was raised, and war and murder was denounced publicly as evil. Although Total Theologiae and its author, Thomas Aquinas, has played an important role in the current mixture of ideas, Thomas’ book goes polemic in particular against ecclesiastical authorities such as Gregory the Great, and criticizes the view on the “active life” (life with fellow humans) and its capacity as part of the family follow the order but that is practiced in the length of some suitable person, and the “contemplative life” (life devoted to God), which is controlled by the mind which, according to Thomas is higher than the action. In some situations however Thomas recognized the active life to precede the contemplative.
During the Council of Ferrara-Florence 1438-1445 several ecclesiastical men came in contact with Greek literature, which was the beginning of the interest in antiquity and Platonism, unlike scholastic Aristotelianism, which resulted in the movement. Some therefore believe that humanism has its roots in Byzantium. Others argue that the Renaissance manifesto was written by Italian Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, and that humanism as part or consequence of that era was mostly of Florence, why Florence is usually considered to be its origin.
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