Lung cancer (bronchogenic carcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma) is a malignant neoplasm of the lung, originating from the bronchial epithelium of various calibers. Depending on the location, the cancer is divided into central, peripheral, and massive (mixed).
Lung cancer is a major health and social problem in developed countries, it is the most common cancer and the most common cause of death from cancer. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, each year about 1 million new cases of lung cancer is registered in the world, and 60% of cancer patients die from the disease. Men suffer from lung cancer more often, every fourth cancer in men is lung cancer, and women have the same – only every 12th. According to the 2000 lung cancer was the cause of death of 32% of men and 7.2% of women who have found any malignancy.
In the diagnosis of lung cancer, integrated x-ray diagnostics is used, which involves the use of radiography, tomography, pnevmomediastinography, anhiopnevmography, computed tomography, or CT based on nuclear magnetic resonance.
To assess the ventilation, a radiopnevmography with the He133 is used, which allows to identify the area of reduced pneumatization in different zones of the lungs.
Bronchoscopy allows for cytological and histological studies to establish tumor spread in the bronchial tree. For the other endoscopic techniques, mediastinoscopy and thoracoscopy are used.
Mediastynoskopiya is indicated for the detection of mediastinal enlarged lymph nodes suspicious for metastasis. Thoracoscopy allows to exclude metastatic pleural lesion, facilitates the differential diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma.
Treating cancer requires accurate histological or cytological diagnosis. In difficult cases, systematic study of sputum for atypical cells is important for diagnostics. The final procedure in case of uncertain diagnosis in some cases is diagnostic thoracotomy.
In recent years, radioimmunological tests are widely used and determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), calcitonin and β2 – microglobulin, which concentration in the blood of patients with lung cancer is much higher than normal concentration.
In non-small cell lung cancer, a primary method of treatment is surgery. It is recommended in stage I-II of the disease and lies in conducting pneumonectomy, lobectomy, or extended operations. In some cases, preoperative and postoperative radiation therapy allows to improve the results of treatment of patients with lung cancer. It is used in patients with II-III stages. Implementation of combined treatment with the inclusion of radiotherapy is based on high frequency of non-radical operations.
Those student who write their research proposals on lung cancer, may want to use free example research papers on different topics, where they can learn that chemotherapy in non small cell lung cancer is often used, when a patient has refused other methods of treatment or they cannot be used due to the prevalence of the process, as well as in case of the recurrent disease, when other treatments have been exhausted.
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