The notion of parenting styles refers to the set of psychology characteristic of basic attitudes and behaviors that parents, teachers, and other educators use in their educational activities.
Parenting styles must be distinguished from education concepts and teaching philosophies. Education concepts and philosophies are explicitly based on intentional elements such as educational objectives, standards, concepts, and ideals. Parenting styles however are composed of educational attitudes and behavioral tendencies based on them, which is not necessarily reflected.
Psychologists, who have defined parenting styles in this sense, include Klaus Schneewind, Helmut Lukesch, Heinz Walter Krohne, and Michael Hock. The Christian, Marxist, or anti-authoritarian education are examples of educational concepts. An authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, permissive, or neglected education are examples of parenting styles.
Due to the fact that parenting styles are based on basic human settings, they are usually quite stable in individuals. Individual’s disposition and behave is formed according to the educating styles his or her parents used, either compliant or consistently undemanding or demanding, skeptical or optimistic, aggressive or friendly, responsive or resistant, based on self-respect or empathy. Parenting styles are individual bundles of such features that are applied in a given culture as particularly characteristic.
The scientific study of parenting styles began in the 20th Century. In 1930, Alfred Adler published his Child Education, a textbook on parenting in which he described the use of the individual psychological concepts in child development and education in school and at home. In his work, he praised strict style and described an indulgent and neglected education, such as interfered with the formation of character. A teacher typology, designed by Ernst Vowinkel in the 1920s, was largely ignored.
A social psychologist Kurt Lewin is considered the founder of the parenting style research, which was conducted by him together with Ronald Lippitt and Ralph K. White Field in the United States in the late 1930s. The research presented a set of experiments on the effects of different parenting styles on the performance of youth groups. The researchers distinguished between an authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire style, establishing a tradition of typological concepts that remained standard for the classification of parenting styles until the 1970s. The research was also pathbreaking, because it was the first attempt to find a distinction between parenting styles.
College student, who writes their research proposals on parenting styles, should consult free sample research paper topics, from which they will learn that in the 1940s, Alfred L. Baldwin developed research methods, which are today applied for the analysis of parent-child interactions in the so-called rock-studies using questionnaires and long-term observations. These formed the basis for the comprehensive work of Diana Baumrind in the 1960s. Her studies and categorizations of parenting styles have influenced later research.
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