Segregation can be based on several different and interacting (intersectional) grounds of discrimination (discrimination is defined by the National Encyclopedia as an activity of treating some people as inferior to others) but is always more or less hierarchically ordered. This means that segregation should be understood as an effect of both discrimination and a form of discrimination. The object’s properties or characteristics for discrimination and segregation are constantly fluid, determined by the dominant group. Many grounds have long history, others are paraphrases, and some are new. Sex, color, ethnicity, class, disability, age, sexual orientation, religious or political affiliation are some that have been used for a long time and have been determinative of categorization and thus formed the basis for socio-economic status.
By definition, segregation could not be self-imposed. However, spatially integration or spatially isolation is possible, such as gate communities. Thus, segregation is opposite to spatial integration. Societal or social integration is much more complex process that affects all individuals and all sectors of society.
Number of societies have practiced segregation throughout history, but this attitude has always been far from universal. Indeed, some multiracial societies like the Roman Empire resorted to it.
Some modern societies are officially segregated, but most disapprove the racial discrimination. However, the concerns expressed about the differences in the race, religion and culture are still evident, but now in the form of social or political controversy.
Segregation has a long history of monitoring and in his book “Discipline and Punish” Micael Foucault describes segregation in the Roman society as an example of a hierarchical control and discipline techniques. Violation of the existing arrangements at this time resulted in public corporal punishment as a deterrent. During the 1600s, there was more efficient segregation and disciplining technology through the creation of institutions such as: prisons, schools, armies, factories, and bedlams among others. Now it is the soul that is in focus and to be disciplined (normalized) by the body’s jailers “The body is the prison of the soul.”
However, even modern youth activity such as youth sports or kids’ library, and the like might be seen in this perspective. By segregation of these individuals from the mass population, several goals are achieved. For example, young people can avoid to be influenced by the evil of mass while disciplined for good.
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