Sanitation is a set of practical measures, which aims to improve the hygienic conditions. Sanitation is strongly linked to public health because of the many diseases associated with an unhealthy environment. Proximity to the waste-water can cause diseases of fecal-oral transmission (diarrhea, typhoid, hepatitis, cholera), or related to a vector (malaria, filariasis, dengue). Other diseases are also linked to poor basic sanitation and in particular defective or poorly equipped latrines: nematodes, bilharziasis, and other worms. Sanitation aims to ensure the disposal and treatment of waste-water and excreta in minimizing risks to human health and the environment.
Generally, remediation includes procedures of removal and treatment of waste-water and solid waste products.
These procedures include:
- Filtration. Filtration is carried out in order to ensure the safety of water reuse. Waste-water is filtrated to bring to the standards that allow the use of this water without harm to the environment and human health. The waste-water goes through special filters that separate liquid and solid contaminants. Then the water is saturated with ozone and oxygen, and passed through a more fine filter. Finally, the water is sterilized with a solution of chlorine.
- Landfills. Garbage disposal in a landfill for the purpose of later recycling ensures cleaning of residential and industrial areas of the city from the waste of mineral and organic origin, which could be a habitat of harmful insects and animals. In addition to that, these solid waste products, such as food, etc. undergo rapid decomposition, and can become a source of pathogens.
- Utilization. The next stage is the utilization of garbage and waste products, which can be used after recycling. Such waste products are sorted by type of recycling. Then they are crushed, deprived of impurities and, if necessary, melted. The list of materials that can be recycled include various metals, plastics, paper, and glass.
- Ecological sanitation. Ecological sanitation involves the installation of composting toilets, where the situation requires it (e.g. developing countries). In addition to that, there is a distribution of special training literature, which helps to improve the educational level of people in terms of hygiene and sanitation. Such literature popularly explains the importance of hand washing with soap and water, etc.
University and college students, who write their research proposal on sanitation, should also explain that collection and disposal of waste products also help to maintain a healthy environment. Moreover, they have to describe the significance of hygiene and sanitation for improving the environmental conditions in residential and industrial areas. If you have little or not enough experience in this domain, free sample research paper topics on sanitation will guide through the process of a first-class research project writing, which seems so obscure for beginners. There are great deal of excellent free samples on the Web, but be careful to choose, as a big part of them may turn out to be poor-quality imitations.
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