Skydiving is an activity during free fall from a plane (but any other aircraft can be used) and then return to earth with the help of a parachute. The jumps with a free fall from a fixed point (bridge, cliff, etc.)are part of so-called base-jumping.
After the jump, the skydiver is in free fall for a longer or shorter depending on the discipline practiced and the height at which it was dropped. It can perform figures alone or with others before his parachute opens. Once under sail (in flight with open parachute), he can also perform figures alone or with other skydivers before reaching the ground flying with his parachute to land at the place designated.
The history of skydiving starts with the development of the hot air balloon and the jump from it André-Jacques Garnerin above the Parc Monceau in Paris in October 22, 1797. The development of the aviation in the early twentieth century has allowed the military to use this practice to drop men and equipment quickly over an area. This practice is widely during World War II with the major airborne operations such as Operation Market Garden.
During the second half of the twentieth century, this activity becomes a hobby and several adventurers such as Leo Valentin (which developed the ancestor of Wingsuit and hang gliding), Jean-Louis, and Jacques Chalon Potron reclaimed the ground in 1956 with the first skydive, and Colette Duval with a jump from more than 10,000 meters in 1958.
At air shows, demonstrations of paratroopers were sometimes organized by such men as Salvatore Cannarozzo who practiced particularly dangerous low openings, which have since been banned.
In 1971, Steve Snyder markets, in the United States, the first sailing boxes under the name Paraplane and in 1972; we find the first sail of this type in the France Skydiving Championship.
The rectangular parachute (wing) was improved. It became controllable with a soft landing and replaced the hemispherical parachute used by the military.
From 1980, again thanks to the improved equipment, skydiving is open to non-parachutists via tandem jumps, where a person is attached to a tandem instructor who provides the entire jump. Improved cameras also the creation of the role of videographer.
Also at that time, men such as Patrick Gayardon innovate and popularized several forms of freefall as freestyle, base-jumping, and skysurf.
Olav Zipser was a pioneer of modern skydiving.
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