Cause of teenage suicides most often are poor peer and family relationships, poverty, drugs and alcohol, trouble with learning, experienced childhood abuse, unrequited love, incurable disease, or social isolation.
Increased risk of suicide is indicated in homosexual teens who commit suicide attempts from two to six times more often than their heterosexual peers.
Teenagers and young adults are more likely to commit suicide; men are four times more women (although women make 4 times more suicide attempts). The unemployed and unskilled workers are at increased suicidal risk. Doctors, especially women, are also at increased risk: a meta-analysis of 25 sources showed that female doctors make 2.3 times more suicides than the average population, and men – 1.4 times.
Maltreatment and other adverse experiences in childhood increase the risk of suicide in adolescence, at least through such intermediate factors closely associated with negative experiences in childhood, as alcohol and drug abuse, as well as depression tendency.
When there are close relatives who have committed suicide, risk of suicide increases sixfold.
Hereditary factor for suicide is relevant in 30% to 50%, but not clear whether the main reason is the genetic causes (including inheritance of mental illness), or the fact of the relatives suicide.
Strong family and social ties reduce the likelihood of suicide. Religious beliefs and, in particular, participation in religious activities, responsibility, the presence of creative ideas, as well as fear of physical suffering often reduce the probability of committing a suicide.
Early identification and appropriate treatment of mental disorders is an important part of the prevention strategy. The main criteria for the treatment and prevention of suicide is the formation anti suicidal personality factors that hinder the development of later suicidal behavior or suicidal actions implementation.
Despite the fact that the incorrect use of antidepressants can trigger suicide, this is no reason to abandon their use. For the period of 1998-2003 the number of antidepressants prescribed in the U.S. grew by 91%, which was accompanied by a decrease in the number of suicides by 33%. In the Netherlands, a similar picture was observed (120% and 31%, respectively).
A warning about a possible connection of the use of antidepressants to suicides were published by the FDA and some European regulators in 2003. This led to a decrease in appointments of the SSRI antidepressants to children and adolescents by 22%, which was accompanied by an increase in the number of suicides in this group by 14% in the U.S. and 49% in the Netherlands (during 2003-2005).
It should be noted that for patients suffering from feeling of hopelessness non-drug-behavioral and cognitive therapy are particularly efficient.
In addition, helplines and centers for psychological care, are including in schools, are still considered effective.
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