The notion of head injury or traumatic brain injury (TBI) covers neurocranium trauma (upper part of the skull containing the brain) and the brain injury.
Clinical manifestations depend on the force of the stroke and related factors (age, pre-existing conditions, and other associated injuries). Due to the anatomical location of the head, head trauma is often associated with cervical spine trauma (sprains, dislocations, and fractures), or face (bruises, wounds, maxillofacial fractures) and eye injuries.
The immediate and remote consequences of traumatic brain injuries are often the result of damage caused to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord injury). They can be a very severe trial for the victims and their families and their social and financial cost is high.
In clinical terms, there are three main categories of brain injury: light (without loss of consciousness or skull fracture), medium (with initial loss of consciousness exceeding few minutes or skull fractures) and severe (with immediate coma with or without associated skull fractures).
Significant progress has been made in taking prompt medical care for victims and the rapid and accurate diagnosis of lesions that may benefit from surgical treatment. Despite these advances, more than 50% of serious cases die or keep a lifelong disability. And the prognosis is most often related to the importance of the initial signs and lesions (occurring at the time of the accident).
Head injuries are the leading cause of death and severe disability before age 45. The main causes are traffic accidents (approximately 50%), sports accidents, work accidents, domestic accidents, and assaults. Between 180,000 and 320,000 U.S. troops have been diagnosed with such a trauma since 2000.
There are also indirect mechanisms without head injury per se, however, creating lesions of the same type. In this category are anoxic (choking) or hypoglycemic (e.g., due to insulin overdoses, particularly in diabetics) brain injury.
Initial evaluation is a procedure that allows to separate clearly benign trauma from those requiring intensive hospital care. The examination of the victim and / or witnesses aims to understand the type of accident and injury, however, such examination do not allow to anticipate the severity of the injury.
Disorders of consciousness must be investigated and quantified according to the Glasgow Coma Scale.
Students who write their research proposals on traumatic brain injury must remember that there is always risk of quadriplegia (paralysis of all four limbs) in case of reckless patient transportation. Similarly, trauma associated with another part of the body should be sought as a routine.
To find a good source of relevant data on the subject, you may need to consult free sample research paper topics on traumatic brain injury. They can be very helpful if you have little or none experience and seek for help.
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