There are no, of course, such pure forms in practice. Therefore, health care financing is usually provided in a mixed form. However, independently of which form of financing is dominant, they call it National Health Service in England, Ireland, Italy, and Scotland, compulsory health insurance in Austria, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, and Japan and universal health care (USA), where about 90% of the population use the services of private insurance companies.
Germany was one of the first countries where health insurance was introduced in1881.
The German model of health insurance has the following features:
- decentralization, which implies existing in the country more buy avodart canada than 1,000 insurance offices: professional, territorial and substitute cash;
- compulsory health insurance;
- the main task of the government is creating optimal conditions for medical care and monitoring their implementation;
- division of responsibility between the government and insurance sickness funds to implement an active policy of restricting prices for medical services. Insurance sickness funds implement strict system of mutual settlements; introduce systems of co-payments to insured for drugs and other services.
The British model is characterized by the following features:
- high level of centralization. Compulsory health insurance covers 1/3 of the population;
- prevalence of budgetary finance system. Less than 10% of the budget of health care is financed by employers and more than 90% – at the expense of tax revenue;
- mandatory medical insurance for all employees. Housewives can benefit from voluntary health insurance program;
- patient pays 10% of the treatment;
- private insurance covers the categories of persons who are not subject to compulsory insurance, distribution of private voluntary insurance for those services that are not provided by the NHS.
The American model of health insurance is characterized by the following features:
- accumulation of funds in the central insurance fund;
- centralized fund allocation based on legally established form of payment. This system covers more than 20% of the population;
- voluntary group insurance at work covers about 60% of the population;
- voluntary insurance not at the place of work covers about 2% of the population;
- 15% of the population has no access to health insurance.
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