Higher education or higher vocational education is the top level of professional education, following the general secondary or vocational education in the three-tier system. Includes a set of systematized knowledge and practical skills that allow to solve theoretical and practical problems of the professional profile. Unlike general, higher education is not universal.
The higher education system in different countries is based on one-, two -, three- and four-level structure. In four levels structure, the graduates are divided into having bachelors, specialists, masters, and PhD degree. With a three-tier system of education adopted, the division is into bachelors (the first level), masters, and specialists (second level).
Higher education is available for full-time, extramural, or free forms of education (distance education), as well as external. Moreover, in some countries, depending on the form and the goals of training, number of disciplines, level of training, and so on, there is the division of students on regular, conditional, special, casual, etc.
Depending on the country, systems, and profile of the education, the training period for higher education may vary from 4 to 9 years.
In ancient Greece, the highest level of education has been provided to pay more attention to the education of young people. In the IV-III BC, Plato was one of the ideologists of the introduction of higher level of education. He wanted to bring it to the formation of a small part of the gifted aristocratic youth (boys), which has shown the ability to abstract thinking and studying subjects not in their direct application, but in the philosophical and theoretical terms. For example, astronomy must be studied not for its usual purposes – navigation – but for thinking about the infinity of the universe. Moreover, those who managed to finish this stage of education at age 30 and showed exceptional talent could continue their education up to 35 years to become the rulers of the state. Similar view was taken in the III century BC by Aristotle, who believed that the third, the highest stage of education was necessary for the development of the natural abilities in a trinity of physical, moral, and intellectual trends.
In the IV century on the territory of Georgia was opened a Graduate school of rhetoric.
In 988, in Cairo at Al-Azhar Mosque Fatimids was founded Al-Azhar University – the oldest, by far, the Muslim Theological School. It was named after the daughter of the Prophet Fatima Zuhra. In 1961, the university was reorganized by Egyptian president Nasser, who added a number of secular faculties (medicine, agriculture, etc.).
Further differentiation of science only led to greater allocation of the third, the highest stage of education. However, the definition of higher education in the modern sense has developed only in the Middle Ages.
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