Water purification is a process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological pollutants, suspended particulate matters and gases, contaminating fresh water. The final result of the cleaning process is a clean drinking-water suitable for the use with a certain goal. Depending on the purpose of waste water purification, other terms are used: sewage treatment as well as industrial water treatment.
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In addition, water treatment can be produced for other purposes answering other requirements, for example, for medical aims or for application in chemical, pharmacological, or other industries or even for using in a lab in various experiments.
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In its entirety, the technological process, used for water purification, consists of different physical methods (distillation, sedimentation, filtration), biological methods (using bioactive absorbent carbon or slow sand filters), chemical methods (chlorinating, flocculating, and use of electromagnetic radiation, for example, ultraviolet).
According to the data mentioned in the report of the Worldwide Health Organization on the topic, in 2011 2 milliards of persons did not have an access to the proper sources of water-supply, from 5 milliards of diarrhoea cases over 88% were caused by the use of unsafe water, in addition to inadequate sanitation and hygiene.
Moreover, according to the experts of the Worldwide Health Organization, annually 2 million persons die from diarrhoea like diseases, in 94% cases could have been prevented by the change of terms of environment, including the access of the population to the safe (cleared and prepared) water.
The use of relatively simple methods of cleaning, disinfection, and preparation of drinking-water for domestic needs, for example, by chlorinating, flocculating, and application of filters for water, sunbeams disinfection (ultraviolet disinfection), as well as containing the supplies of drinking-water in safe sterile containers would annually save an enormous number of human lives. Thus, the primary purpose of the health care organizations in developing countries is a decline of death cases caused by the illnesses as the result of the use of off-grade drinking-water.
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