Food Safety (also: food hygiene) is a generic term for all measures and concepts that are intended to ensure that food are safe to eat and cannot cause a health problem or poisoning.
Unattended food can be a carrier disease with very favorable environment for the bacteria growth (both outside and inside the food product), which can cause food poisoning. From the moment of their production until consumption, food is constantly exposed to possible contamination. Foods provide ideal breeding ground for the growth of certain microorganisms, bacteria, spores, etc.
Depending on the origin of their presence in foods, these microorganisms can penetrate into the internal structures of the food, or be incorporated into the food during the production and processing process.
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In terms of the food consumption by humans, microorganisms can be “pathogens,” that is to say, to cause illness or “spoilage” (saprophytes) of the food texture, flavor, or color. The incubation period of most of them is brief: two to ten hours. Some microorganisms have a minimum infective dose low (MID) and the hygiene is the only guarantee to keep the food in good condition.
During the digestion of food, the hydrochloric acid of the stomach is able to eliminate many bacteria, but it does not prevent the development of certain human diseases such as infectious disease caused by Salmonella enteric, shigellosis, listeriosis, gastroenteritis caused by Escherichia coli, enteritis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica, diarrhea caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, enteritis caused by Campylobacter, acute food poisoning such as botulism (intoxication by residues of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum) and staphylococcal intoxication, chronic poisoning caused by fungus, virus diseases transmitted by foods such as hepatitis type A, etc.
Pathogenic microorganisms proliferate specifically, some grow at low temperatures, others need moisture, heat, etc. Precautions must be extreme when it comes to food production in large quantities. In this case, the production and processing the food may have varying degrees of susceptibility to the contamination. These stages of the process are the “critical points,” which are generally the points of observation by the public authorities and extreme vigilance by food manufacturers.
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