The growing technogenic load on an environment resulted in that groundwater is exposed to contamination. The supplies of drinking-water headily diminish on the planet, its quality gets poorer. All this affects the human health, variety of animal and vegetable kingdom.
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The problem of groundwater contamination dates back to the XVI century, in those times, when agriculture developed intensively. During this period agriculture became the main reason of worsening of quality of underwater.
It is known that the basic water contaminants are phenols, oil products, banding of copper, zinc, nitrate nitrogen, mercury, manganese, etc., all these substances pollute underground water as a result of poor functioning of the water recycle facilities and uncontrolled waste disposal. Increasing urbanization and the fast development of industry in the XX century brought had made the situation difficult enough in regard to quality of water.
Therefore anthropogenic influence may be regarded as the main reason for the declining of the biosphere functions, change in physical and chemical condition of groundwater.
Groundwater are subdivided into drinkable, with the qualitative composition meeting the normative requirements of its fitness for drink, domestic needs, and technical, intended for the use for technical purposes. Technical waters have different chemical constitution.
Also groundwater is subdivided into infiltration, condensation, juveniles, and mixed. Infiltration water appear as a result of penetration of atmospheric fallouts in the earth’s crust, condensation water appears during condensation of the vaporous water contained in mountain breeds. Juveniles water often means relict, because it usually is strongly mineralized and are located in the earth’s crust pools. The mixed waters appear as a result of interfusion of the above-mentioned waters.
Groundwater contamination takes place during the process of filtration of harmful substances from the surface. Thus there are a few types of sources of contamination: industrial grounds, where the substances possessing the ability to migrate with ground water are used; places of storage of industrial products and wastes; places of accumulation of domestic wastes; sewage of agricultural farms. The special danger is created by the places of storage of the pesticides including forbidden to use, and also enterprises related to the oil production and oil processing.
The sources of chemical contamination of groundwater are wash-offs and hard wastes of enterprises, containing various inorganic and organic substances. In the process of filtration of effluents from near-by territory of enterprise groundwater may contain heavy metals, aromatic, toxic and other harmful substances.
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