Running is a way of movement (locomotion), which is used by human and animals, characterized by so-called “flight phase” and occurs as a result of a complex coordinated activity of the skeletal muscles and limbs. For running, the body uses the same cycle of movements, the same involved forces, and functional groups of muscles as for walking. The difference is the absence of the double support phase.
Running is good as an aerobic activity and increases endurance capacity, has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system, accelerates metabolism and thus helps to control the body weight. In addition, running has a positive effect on the immune system, improves skin tone, and strengthens the muscles of the legs.
Running allows to improve the functioning of the endocrine and nervous systems. When running, the body is constantly overcome Earth’s gravity by jumping and falling in an upright position and the blood flow enters into the resonance with this rhythmic motion, activating unused capillaries. The micro-circulation activates the organs of internal secretion, increases the level of hormones and helps coordinate the functioning of other organs and body systems.
The main muscles, used in running, are the heart, femur and tibia muscles. Running also involves the flexor and extensor hallucis longus muscles, developing soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles. This gives a leg more even and complete look. The muscles of the rectus abdominis are also used mainly at the sites in the pubic area.
Breathing rate while running is based on the body’s need for oxygen. Oxygen starvation causes increased heart rate, which affects the breathing rate. Artificially created oxygen starvation makes the muscles to work more actively, to increase the number of capillary and blood vessels, which improves the oxygen assimilation.
Running was the first and only discipline in the first Ancient Olympic games. According to a legend, the first Olympic Games were organized by Heracles in 1210 BC. There are the records of several early Olympic games that had only the running for one stadium (192 m) in their program. In 724 BC, to the Olympic program was added competition for two stadiums. In 720 BC, the running for seven stadiums was added.
Running is very popular sport activity today. Millions and million of people are choosing running as their preferable leisure activity. There are several types of running: sprinting and long distance running, which includes marathon and cross country. Moreover, there is recreational running, such as jogging, barefoot running, etc.
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