Translation is a reproduction of the original text by the means of another language while preserving the unity of content and form. This unity is achieved through the coherent ideological reproduction of the original content in its typical stylistic originality in other linguistic basis. The way to achieve this unity does not lie through the establishment of formal correspondences. The comparison of different languages, even the most remote, is only possible by comparing the functions that perform a variety of language tools. Hence, the accuracy of translation has rather a functional than a formal compliance with the original.
It is obvious that, for example, the possibility of direct correspondences is minimal in poetry and a translation of technical or scientific text (technical translation), on the contrary, often resorts to direct correspondences. Translation of prose takes in this case an intermediate position: where possible, it is a direct transformation and it goes to the semantic interpretation in the case where direct transformation is unacceptable in terms of fidelity to the original.
Unlike interpretation, translation as a communicative act has not a particular destination and is unlimited by the demands of a particular person or group. It is made in accordance with generally accepted standards of terminology and other artistic, scientific, and technical prose.
That is why there are higher requirements for translation: it is a written text, and it must meet all the grammar, style, and spelling rules of the target language. Interpretation can be made more freely without such strict compliance and it will be understood (and in this situation it is what matters most) and immediately forgotten as inessential. With translation, it is different, because it will be read and used by many people. These people will repeatedly use and may be even quote this information in their writings. A translation of the novel, story, and poem become an integral part of a national literature, although written in some other languages.
We conclude that translation is to be approached differently than interpretation. It is not only about more stringent requirements, but above all, it is about the process of translation, in which all the factors that determine the choice of the translated equivalent must be taken into account.
For those who seek to learn how to write a good research proposal, there are thousands of free research paper topics on machine translation theory and studies on the web, which can show you that translation problems can be both general and particular. Common problems include the various imperfections of the original text, for example, the source text is incoherent, has logical and grammatical errors, the semantic component of the text is lost. In this case, the process of translation of the text is much more difficult. There are also particular difficulties, which include the presence of untranslatable words in the text, as well as the presence of words with the dual designation.
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