As a basic concept when assessing television audience is TV rating (TVR, basic rating), expressed as a percentage of the audience size during a specific time period.
What is the TV rating needed for?
Advertisers are using the ratings to determine the number of people who will be able to see the message. The ratings are used by TV channels to assess the quality of their broadcasts. The channels management wants to get rid of low quality or unpopular program, which they determine by these ratings, as quickly as possible because they can lose their audience to other channels.
Based on these ratings, TV channels set advertising rates in a TV show or series or movie, at one time or another. To measure the audience usually average rating is used. A TV viewer watching broadcast from the beginning to the end, is counted as one. Watching a half of the given broadcast is 0.5, and so on. The rating of 15-minute interval (slot) is usually denoted as RQH (quarter-hour rating).
The types of television ratings includes actual and projected. The actual ratings are based on the broadcasts. They reflect the real TV-watching. The projected ratings are the ratings of some planned broadcasts. They are necessary for broadcasters, as well as for advertisers. TV channels, basing on the projected ratings, forms their TV program and purchase TV shows and movies, which should bring them some income.
Advertisers use the projected ratings for planning their campaigns for long-term periods.
The prediction is based on the dynamics of historical results. The real-time ratings are amended to reflect the projected background, seasonal, meteorological and other changes. So, daylight saving time, when the total TV-watching falls down, projected rating decreases. When the political situation in the country worsens, then the ratings of the news shows grow. Etc. Ratings may be projected both by research companies and by TV channels. This is an extremely difficult job, even more complicated because of the often changing of the broadcasting time of a show.
Total TVR is also a very important rating, which is expressed as a percentage of the television audience during the estimated time interval to the total population. It refers to a group of the population from which the sample respondents are selected for the study. This can be and people all over the country as a whole or a specific region, as well as people with certain socio-demographic parameters. For example, in a region with a population of 100000 people at certain times 35000 people watched some shows. Thus, Total TVR = 35%.
In fact, Total TVR is the rating of all the TV channels at a certain time. Summarizing the individual ratings of all programs, you can get the Total TVR.
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