Westward Expansion Research Paper

Westward expansion is the expansion of the United States from the first white settlement on the east coast into the continent. In the period between the Anglo-American war of 1812-1814 and the Civil War in the United States, the valley of the Mississippi River and the borough of the Great Lakes were populated, and the expansion achieved its maximum amplitude in the 19th century, becoming one of the major events of the era.

Victorious Mexican-American War (1846-1848) and the Gold rush in California (1848) played a major role in the development of the Wild West and the Pacific coast. Construction of the Union Pacific railway, the further expansion of the railway network, the pacification of the Indian population and increasing immigration from Europe contributed to the development of the Great Plains. By the 90s of the 19th century the Western border had disappeared as such, although in the 20th century migration in the country took place mainly in the west.

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After the elections in 1789, George Washington became the first U.S. president. The first concern of his administration was the establishment of order in the finance sector. Executing the program of the Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, the government restructured Congress debts formed during the War of Independence, releasing new federal loan bonds. Then it introduced new tariffs and taxes, including for whiskey, which triggered the uprising in some regions of the country. Besides the federal Treasury were formed the departments of foreign affairs and defense, and chief prosecutor was appointed (actually the Department of Justice was formed only in 1870). Then laws were passed to create a system of federal courts, including the Supreme Court, who later became (in 1801-1834 under Judge at John Marshall) one of the higher authorities.

Measures taken by the Administration in Washington, helped to create a strong state power, relied on the support of wealthy merchants and financiers. However, in 1801, the administration of President Jefferson, the leader of the Republican Party, came to power, which have revised the Federalists government policies, and so weakened the former ruling party, that the Federalists soon turned into a party of political marginals.

In 1812, despite the first defeat in the war with Great Britain, Americans once again beat back the British invasion and completely destroyed the British alliance with the Indians, allowing them to intensify the expansion to the west. In the 1830s, the Federal government evicted all the Indian tribes in the territories east of the Mississippi River. Since then, the Indians allowed people to settle in the western United States. Further westward expansion led to an expansion in the U.S. to the Pacific Ocean.

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